Choosing Wisely Radiology Respiratory

Do children with bronchiolitis, croup, asthma, or first-time wheezing need a Chest X-Ray?

For most children with children with bronchiolitis, croup, asthma, or first-time wheezing chest X-Rays are not necessary. These X-Rays are often obtained due to the possibility of missing pneumonia. But, these radiographs are hard to interpret, increase length of stay and the cost of care, and expose children to excess radiation.

This podcast episode is designed to disseminate the important work of Choosing Wisely, an initiative of the the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, the goal of which is the spark conversations between clinicians and patients about what tests, treatments, and procedures are needed – and which ones are not.

The Choosing Wisely recommendation: Do not obtain radiographs in children with bronchiolitis, croup, asthma, or first-time wheezing

The Choosing Wisely Pediatric Emergency Medicine Recommendations

The Choosing Wisely Campaign Toolkit


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Shah SN, Bachur RG, Simel DL, Neuman MI. Does this child have pneumonia? The rational clinical examination systematic review. JAMA. 2017;318(5):462-471. PMID: 28763554.

Schuh S, Lalani A, Allen U, et al. Evaluation of the utility of radiography in acute bronchiolitis. J Pediatr. 2007;150(4):429-433. PMID: 17382126.

Ramgopal S, Ambroggio L, Lorenz D, Shah SS, Ruddy RM, Florin TA. A Prediction Model for Pediatric Radiographic Pneumonia. Pediatrics. 2022 Jan 1;149(1):e2021051405. doi: 10.1542/peds.2021-051405. PMID: 34845493

Florin TA, Carron H, Huang G, Shah SS, Ruddy R, Ambroggio L. Pneumonia in Children Presenting to the Emergency Department with an Asthma Exacerbation. JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170(8):803-805. https://doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.0310

Radiology Surgery

Ultrasound for Appendicitis

This episode of PEM Currents: The Pediatric Emergency Medicine podcast is focused on the use of ultrasound to make the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. You’ll learn about how a right lower quadrant ultrasound is performed, what we look for on the images, how to interpret positive, negative, and intermediate/equivocal results and much more! This episode was co-produced by Liz Lendrum, a senior pediatric resident at Cincinnati Children’s. She developed the learning objectives, compiled the references, and did a stellar job preparing the script and show notes that we used to record this episode. You can follow her on Twitter @liz_lendrum.

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CME & MOC Part 2

We are proud to offer CME and MOC Part 2 from Cincinnati Children’s. Click this link to go to the page for credit. Credit is free and registration is required.

Click here to claim CME and MOC part 2 Credit

Appendicits Clinical Scores

Pediatric Appendicitis Score – MD Calc

Alvarado Score for Acute Appendicitis – MD Calc

Pediatric Appendicitis Risk Calculator – MD Calc


Kharbanda AB, Vazquez-benitez G, Ballard DW, et al. Development and Validation of a Novel Pediatric Appendicitis Risk Calculator (pARC). Pediatrics. 2018;141(4).

Cotton DM, Vinson DR, Vazquez-benitez G, et al. Validation of the Pediatric Appendicitis Risk Calculator (pARC) in a Community Emergency Department Setting. Ann Emerg Med. 2019.

Samuel M. Pediatric Appendicitis Score. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, Vol 37,No 6 (June),2002: pp 877-881.

Goldman RD. The Paediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS) was useful in children with acute abdominal pain. Evid Based Med 2009;14:26 doi:10.1136/ebm.14.1.26

Kharbanda, AB. Validation and Refinement of a Prediction Rule to Identify Children at Low Risk for Acute Appendicitis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2012;166(8):738-744. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2012.490

Shah SR, Sinclair KA, Theut SB, Johnson KM, Holcomb GW 3rd, St Peter SD. Computed Tomography Utilization for the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis in Children Decreases With a Diagnostic Algorithm. Ann Surg. 2016 Sep;264(3):474-81.

Becker C, Kharbanda A. Acute appendicitis in pediatric patients: an evidence-based review. Pediatr Emerg Med Pract. Sep 2019;16(9):1-20.

Trout AT, Towbin AJ, Fierke SR, Zhang B, Larson DB. Appendiceal diameter as a predictor of appendicitis in children: improved diagnosis with three diagnostic categories derived from a logistic predictive model. Eur Radiol. Aug 2015;25(8):2231-8. doi:10.1007/s00330-015-3639-x

Anandalwar SP, Callahan MJ, Bachur RG, et al. Use of White Blood Cell Count and Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Differential to Improve the Predictive Value of Ultrasound for Suspected Appendicitis in Children. J Am Coll Surg. Jun 2015;220(6):1010-7. doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2015.01.039

Gendel I, Gutermacher M, Buklan G, et al. Relative value of clinical, laboratory and imaging tools in diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis. Eur J Pediatr Surg. Aug 2011;21(4):229-33. doi:10.1055/s-0031-1273702